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Units of national currency required to purchase one United States dollar, usually representing the period average. For some countries, mid point rates, or the average of buying and selling rates,are used. The average annual rate of change in the exchange rate of the national currency against the United States dollar for the period indicated.A positive value means that the national currency has weakened, whereas a negative value indicates a stronger national currency. Rates of change over several years are calculated using the arithmetic growth model.

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Related Variables

GDP by expenditure: Household consumption expenditure 2010 $ GDP by activity: Wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels Gross Domestic Product (GDP), $ per capita Value added by sector: industry

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Supports GEGs:

Supports SDGs: