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The average annual rate of change in the exchange rate of the national currency against the United States dollar for the period indicated. A positive value means that the national currency has weakened; a negative value indicates a stronger national currency. Rates of change over several years are calculated using the arithmetic growth model.

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Related Variables

Gross Domestic Product (GDP), $ per capita GDP by expenditure: Gross fixed capital formation 2010 $ Gross Domestic Product in constant prices GDP by activity: Manufacturing

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Supports GEGs:

Supports SDGs: